The North China Marine

(English translation on left)

VOL. 1.  No. 3.  (New Series)                                                                      NOVEMBER 24, 1945                                                                       TIENTSIN, CHINA.

Repatriation Of Japanese Underway In Tsingtao

Repatriation! Major General Lemuel C. Shepherd, Jr., accepting surrender of Japanese Shantung Province troops in Tsingtao on October 25. Repatriation of those already disarmed was underway in that area last week.

By S/Sgt. Wayne F. Young
  Tsingtao, China - Repatriation of Japanese nationals from the Shantung Province area of North China began here with the loading of 3,000 Japanese Navy personnel on three LSTs under the supervision of Sixth Marine Division authorities.
  It is planned to move 3,000 Japanese military personnel from this port every other day until an estimated 60,000 are cleared from Shantung Province, according to Major Spencer H. Pratt of the Sixth Division operations office, who is in charge of repatriating military personnel from this port.
  The first group of Japanese civilians has left and Major W. L. Van Schaick of the division Civil Affairs section, said an estimated 30,000 civilians are now living in Tsingtao. An additional 40,000 to 45,000 are to be brought here from other parts of Shantung Province.
  A fleet of 15 LSTs will shuttle between Tsingtao and the Japanese homeland until all military personnel are returned, Major Pratt said. The civilians will be transported on Japanese merchant vessels.
  The Japanese Naval personnel who have left here were members of the air group based at Tsangkow airfield, about 10 miles outside this city.
  They were part of the 4,800 Navy and 3,200 Army personnel who were garrisoning Tsingtao when Sixth Marine Division troops arrived here October 11.
  These 8,000 troops have been billeted in a brick-walled coke yard about 15 miles outside this city since their surrender.
  A total of 25 freight cars brought the 3,000 troops leaving today, plus their gear, to the docks in Tsingtao.
U.S. Wings In China One of the First Marine Air Wing's transport planes being serviced on the Tientsin Field in preparation for a mail-carrying flight. The Wing boasts one of the most impressive battle records in the Pacific Theater of operations.
First MAW
In Thirteen

  With 13 major operations under its wings since being commissioned at Quantico, Virginia, on July 7, 1941, the First Marine Aircraft Wing moved into the North China Theater of operations as an integral part of the Marine Corps forces here.
  To make up this wing the old First Marine Aircraft Group, which had been the highest Marine aviation echelon on the East Coast up to that time, was redesignated Marine Aircraft Group 11 and became part of the newly created wing. Lieutenant Colonel Louis E. Woods served as Commanding Officer of the Wing until August 20, when he became Chief of Staff, under Brigadier General Roy S. Geiger.
  On August 20, 1942, one fighter squadron and one dive bomber squadron, attached to Marine Aircraft Group 23, landed on Henderson Field, Guadalcanal, to furnish aerial support for the operations of the First Marine Division (Reinforced). Lieutenant Colonel C. L. Fike, Executive Officer of Marine Aircraft Group 23, was in command of the 31 planes which composed the first Allied "Air Force" on Guadalcanal. By mid-October, the scale of operations had increased sufficiently to necessitate setting up a separate Fighter Command and an Air Search and Attack Command.
  Shortly after Guadalcanal was secured, Allied forces began their march up the Solomons ladder with the occupation of the Russell Islands in February 1943, with aerial support furnished by the First marine Aircraft Wing. In September, squadrons from the First Marine Aircraft Wing operating under Com Air Sol (Commander, Aircraft, Solomons) steadily pounded Jap positions on Kolombangara Island, the last enemy base in the New Georgia group. The airfield on Vila was kept out of commission, and enemy barge stations on Choisoul and Kolombangara were kept under constant surveillance to prevent the reinforcement of the garrison on Kolombangara. The occupation of this island enabled the First Marine Aircraft Wing to put out of commission Buka, Bonis, Kahili, Kara and Ballale airfields so that when the Third Marine Division landed on Bougainville on November 1 - the only aerial opposition to the landing came from Rabaul. On Bougainville the First Marine Aircraft Wing gave support to the ground troops only 75 yards from our own front lines without any casualties to friendly personnel.
  Major General R. J. Mitchell, Commanding General of the First Marine Aircraft Wing, on November 20, 1943, relieved Army Air Force Major General N. F. Twining as Commander, Aircraft, Solomons. General Mitchell was thus in command of all Allied air strength in the Solomons when the full weight of its power was thrown against the enemy stronghold of Rabaul, New Britain. That base was then second only to Truk in strength; its harbor teemed with ships and barges, and more than 300 planes were based on the airfields around the town. Although Rabaul had been hit by high altitude Army bombers from New Guinea, and, on two occasions, by Navy carrier planes, it was still at the zenith of its power. On December 17, the all-out campaign to reduce Rabaul began with a fighter sweep by Corsairs, Hellcats, and Kittyhawks of the Aircraft Solomons forces. By the end of December, planes from General Mitchell's command had destroyed 109 Jap planes. In defense of Rabaul aginst the daily attacks of Com Air Sol's planes the Japs had lost 403 more planes by the end of January.
  In January 1944, Major General Mitchell had been acting not only as the Commanding General, First Marine Aircraft Wing, and as the Commander, Aircraft, Solomons, but he had been serving as Commanding General, Marine Aircraft, South Pacific. General Mitchell arrived at Bougainville on June 15, and relieved General Moore as Commanding General.
  For the remainder of 1944, the First Marine Aircraft Wing units continued the aerial strangulation of Jap positions on Bougainville, New Britain; New Ireland, and New Hanover. In December 1944, a number of First Marine Aircraft Wing Corsair Squadrons were transferred to Leyte, to reinforce the Army Air Force units operating there. In the Philippines they received their first opportunity to act as fighters and bombers at the same time.
  The participation of the First Marine Aircraft Wing in the Philippines campaign marks the end of the period of neutralization operations which began with the downfall of Rabaul in February, 1944, knocking down Jap planes, putting Jap airfields out of commission, and sinking Jap ships. Behind it: Guadalcanal, the Russells, Rendova, Munda, Kolombangara, Vella Lavella, Treasury, Bougainville, Green Island, Rabaul, Emirau, Kavieng and the Philippines.
  On November 1, 1945, Major General Louis E. Woods relieved Major General Claude A. Larkin as Commanding General of the wing.   - William J. Mangum    A history of the 6th Marine Division will appear in next week's issue.

Got a Kick Coming?
Tientsin Committee Head Asks Marines To Air ‘Gripes’
By Corp. Victor I. Bumagin

  Mr. Du was very much disturbed!
  The Reception Committee for Allied Forces, Tientsin Municipal Government, of which Mr. Du is Assistant Chairman had instituted a "Complaint Box" last week, and so far nary a complaint had appeared.
  The Committee's job is to make Marines in Tientsin as happy as possible during their stay in this city, and it has the necessary influence and backing to make a good attempt at it, but the drawback seems to be the fact that Marines appear reluctant to divulge what they would like to have done for them in the way of making their stay here more interesting and fruitful.
  And so Mr. Du was disturbed, but definitely not discouraged.
  "I will adopt new and different tactics," he flatly stated. "I am making a thorough study of Marine psychology, and will be prepared to act on my discoveries in the near future."
  Mr. Du's committee is loaded with ideas and it is moving rapidly ahead on plans for a number of new projects, all of which have the same purpose... entertaining Marines.
  Plans have already been drawn up for a series of basketball contests to include some of the best Chinese teams in the area and several Marine teams. A permanent team trophy, and individual trophies for members of the winning aggregation will be donated by Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek. A seven-member sports committee, comprising four Chinese and three Marines will be formed to supervise the contests.
  Also as a part of the projected athletic program,
the Committee has arranged for a badminton shelter of eight courts at the Recreation Grounds, and plans a program including 150 members, 110 of whom will be Marines, and the other 40 of whom will be Chinese players.
  Mr. Du's Committee is looking into the future too. It has drawn up plans for a "States Dinner" to include a Marine representative from each state in the Union.
  The Committee is sincerely interested in trying to solve any and all problems confronting Marines in this city, other than military problems, which obviously do not come under its jurisdiction.
  "If we know what you want done, we will do our best to get it done for you," says Mr. Du.
  The address: The Reception Committee for Allied Forces, Tientsin Municipal Government, 222 Victoria Road. Ex British Concession.

  Tsingtao, China (delayed) - A Marine dropped a nickel into a slot machine in a Tsingtao cafe, pulled the lever and was paid off with some Marine Corps history.
  Corporal John D. Shivers, of Alexandria, Va., put in the nickel. Among the coins, washers and assorted other gizmos which dropped out was a brass slug, on one side of which was stamped "4th Marines Club," and on the other, "10¢ Trade E.T.R."
  The new Fourth Marine Regiment is a part of Major General Lemuel C. Shepherd, Jr.'s Sixth Marine Division. The division is now on duty in Tsingtao, but the Fourth Regiment wasn't around to enjoy the memories recalled by the slot machine incident, since that part of the division is on duty in Japan.

Save Periodicals
  Marine Corps personnel in the Tientsin area are urged to save all stateside periodicals, and to turn them in to the Special Services office, III Phib Corps, located in the old Carlowitz building on Consular Road.

Peiping Tours:
Provide An Interesting Four Day Vacation
  The first liberty party which left here November 15 for a tour of Peiping under the sponsorship of the First Marine Division and the War Area Service Command, returned to Tientsin last Monday, after its four day sojourn.
  300 men from the Tientsin area comprised the inaugural party and plans call for the continuation of the tours in the future. As soon as accommodations can be arranged, the quota for each tour will be raised from the present 300 men to 500.
  Upon arrival in the ancient capital city of northern China, members of the group were presented with pamphlets containing the complete history of the city, and describing points of interest. The tour itself included the Lama Temple, the Temple of Heaven, the Drum Tower, Forbidden City, the Tarter Wall, the Winter Palace, Coal Hill, Confucius Temple, the White Pagoda, and finally Hempels, the home of the old Marine Corps in Peiping.
  The men were quartered in a magnificent structure, a palace some 300 years old. The food was said to have been excellent, and sleeping accommodations were adequate.

  The first Marine parade in Peiping since November, 1941, was in full battle dress, according to a story by Sergeant Leo T. Batt. Chinese in that ancient capital have been accustomed to seeing Marines clad in neatly pressed forest green with a high polish on their shoes. But this time they wore dungarees, helmets, combat packs and leggings.
  Watching the review as guests of Lieutenant Colonel Joseph L. Winecoff of the Fifth Marine Regiment were James B. MacCoy, assistant secretary of war of the U.S. and Chinese General Sun Lien-chung, commander of the 11th War Zone.

Marines' Introduction To Chinese Peddlers..                                                 By James                                                                                                                                                                                   (By Sgt. Roland G. James USMCR.)
The second in a series of two drawings showing the arrival of Marines in China. A new series will begin next week.

  (The following are excerpts from the Tientsin Evening Journal column by Sergeant William Martin Camp, USMC, author of "Retreat, Hell!" and "Skip to My Lou," two recent novels.)
  MORE ABOUT MARRIAGE: Suppose you can qualify in every aspect for the hand of a Chinese bride. In other words, this is what you've done (and this is not easy to do, mind you!):
  You've had the marriage contract signed by your Ma and Pa, and her ancestors; the bride's family has accepted the wedding gifts which you and your buddies marched through the streets with yesterday; you've brought the bride to the groom's house (or tent, or foxhole, as the case may be); and now you look forward to receiving the bride in her red sedan.

*   *   *
  The custom of carrying the bride, hidden away in the dark and stuffy corners of a sedan chair, is as old as Methuselah's mother-in-law, as the Moguls used to say. Her face is covered with a piece of red silk, and she rides at the tail-end of a long procession to the tune of clashing gongs, oom-pah-pah bands playing the Chinese Wedding March.
  If the bride gets there before she smothers to death, her chair is set down on the street before the door where you're supposed to stand with a fan.
  Right here is something we don't understand because the groom doesn't need this fan, unless it's to revive the poor little lotus blossom who has by this time swooned in the chair.
  Anyhow, you're supposed to step forward, tap with your fan on the door of the sedan-chair. The bridesmaids rush forward, open the door and, lo and behold and faith an' bejaysus! there's you're little Chinese lassie, her face still covered.
  Out she steps, to be placed on the back of a female servant (the Colonel says Marines can't have female servants in the old Italian Barracks because - well, just because!). The servant then carries your blushing bride over a bed of hot charcoal. This has never been fully explained to me, so I can't say much more about it, unless it's supposed to warm the bride's tootsies.
  Then, (it is written in the Marriage Book), "By this time the bridegroom has taken his place on a high stool, on which he stands to receive his bride, who prostrates herself at the foot, and does obeisance to her lord."

*   *   *
  Now, for the first time, you get a glimpse of the bride, for (it says here), "descending from his elevated position, the bridegroom removes the veil of red silk."
  Here's your chance to change your mind, for you may not want here to remove the pearls and reveal that hidden beauty.

*   *   *
PEANUTS . . . ?
  Words of a young Chinese Street peddler:
"Peanuts. Very Dirty. No Good. 100 Dollars."
A Marine's influence, no doubt.
Chinese Carpenters . . . . .
Really Produce Despite Implements

  By Sgt. John O. Davies Jr.

  Acquainting Chinese laborers with Yankee "chop-chop" production methods has been a task requiring both linguist and diplomat, according to Navy Lieutenant (s.g.) John H. Stover of New Jersey, alterations boss - among other duties - at the Marine Third Amphibious Corp's troops hospital here.
  "The Chinese I've got working for me," said Stover, "still cling to their old-style tools, ancient saws, axe-hammers and chisels. But they're getting plenty of work done - and in "chop-chop" fashion too."
  Stover, son of Mr. and Mrs. John A. Stover of North Arlington, also is Sanitation officer for H and S battalion.
  When Stover arrived here October 2 he organized a working party of some 50 natives to repair the wreckage left behind by the Japs. The latter had smashed plumbing facilities, flooded cellars, and polluted the water supply.

  "The need for a linguist was almost immediate," he said. "I darn near had to become one overnight. Now, thanks to daily lessons and the fact that I have to deal with these Chinese workers, I'm able to read and write, as well as speak, quite a little bit of the language."
  Language studies led the lieutenant into other channels. He can manipulate chop sticks like a native and fast is becoming a connoisseur of Oriental arts and handicraft.
  For diplomatic relations with his native workers, Stover depends on Joe, his Number One "boy" (he's 45!), who acts as sort of intermediary between the lieutenant and the labor gangs. Joe is back on home base at the compound, having been a squad room boy for Army troops stationed in the area before Pearl Harbor.
  "Joe is my labor relations aide," Stover said. "He helps allocate the work, and takes charge of all 'squeeze' matters. He gets the boys to 'chop-chop,' and is sort of a jack of all trades around here. And a good friend, too."
  In rehabilitating the hospital, Stover's native workers sliced planks out of freshly-cut timber, using slightly-bladed, wooden saws. They found American nails, with their strange, flat heads, hard to cope with until they hit on the idea of smashing the heads in. They measured by thumb until recently, when one of them acquired a regular ruler. As for chisels, use of them in China ranges from the most intricate of carpentry work to toe nail cutting.
  "When we want something done," Stover said," we show 'em a picture. The drawing has to be pretty clear, however. Once, when we wanted some stools made, we displayed a picture of the kind of chair we wanted. The next thing we knew the Chinese were making us a lot of little tables."

Have You Tried This?

  Tsa Ma Tsu is a Chinese delicacy, and hearing it described by a citizen of this great metropolis of the Orient is enough to make you hunger for a sample.
  Tsa Ma Tsu is fried in oil and eaten with onions. It is flavorsome and crunchy, like roasted peanuts.
  The Leathernecks have sampled nearly every variety of native food, from the lavish Peking Duck feast to the fried dough cakes made by street confectioners throughout the city.
  But few Marines have been found who have tasted the delicacy know as Tsa Ma Tsu, better known to the men from the States as the grasshopper.

How Much . . . . . ?
Snooper Shops In ‘Chinese City’

  How does the average Marine spend his liberty?
  We're still looking for the complete answer to that $64 question (since our inquiring reporter gor himself side-tracked last week.) But we tried again this week by tagging a couple of average Marines who spent their liberty last Sunday on a shopping tour.
  Shopping in Tientsin can be both an interesting and profitable experience on one hand or a sad affair on the other. It all depends on how you go about it.
  Having literally "bought out" the downtown shopkeepers on previous liberties, we took off for a new shopping territory, following a tip given us by a friend. His directions led us to "Chinese City," a little known section of Tientsin yet untouched by the Yankee dollar. Any rickshaw driver will understand where you want to go when you tell him Tung Ma Lu. This is one of the main streets forming the boundary of the city. Once you reach there you are on your own, as there are many side streets and alleys cutting up the city which are not found on the map.

  One word of advice before you start on your trip. Make sure you have enough FRB money to pay for your purchases, as we had the sad experience of finding something worth buying but were unable to do so because we were short on FRB. It was a novelty to have our U.S. gold refused, mostly because the shopkeepers didn't understand the exchange rate.
  Buying in the Chinese City is a lot different from other parts of Tientsin. There you may spend two or three hours in the purchase of a single item such as a silver tea or coffee set. And while you are bargaining, it is customary to accept at least five or six cups of tea, which serves as an introduction to most of the family, (on the male side). Then there is always the joker who pretends to have a complete knowledge of the English language, but who ultimately does more to gum up the works than the rest of the family. Sometimes a shop will send out scouts to bring in an English speaking native, in which case your purchase is made a lot easier but a little more expensive. The standard rule of paying half the initial price the merchant asks still holds here, and we have found that this is a pretty fair standard.
  Buying is not limited to silverware alone. Such object s as cloisonne vases, jade, silks and embroideries, hand carved jewelry, hand-painted fans and many other gifts are obtainable at prices below those asked by the merchants and street vendors here in downtown Tientsin. A trip to the Chinese City can be interesting and, if worked right, fairly profitable.   - Corp. Edward Daily

  Regular contributions will be accepted from our readers for this column.
Listen to the whistle, loud and shrill,
The signal for a Chinese fire drill!
Now watch what happens as the doors swing wide;
Front doors, back doors, and those on the side.
The children from the front rooms scurry to the rear,
While those from the out back way at the front appear.
And I declare, I must admit
I soon get the impression
That those near the side doors use their own discretion.
And all is hubbub and confusion unbelievable
As they will and run about in a manner inconceivable;
A jumbled, gyrating, human convolution,
And no one seems to have the solution
Of how to get them untangled
Before anyone's mangled.
Altogether the whole thing's a sort of sorry mess,
Which is why they say,
"all fouled-up
like a Chinese fire drill,"
I guess.
    - Pfc. A. B. Greenberg

Marine Corps Bakers:
Make ‘Liberated Bread’ For Troops

  North China has never heard of anything like this before. As a matter of fact, it's further proof that a few men working together as a team can accomplish almost anything.
  Of you attended one of the many parties celebrating the 170th Birthday of the Marine Corps maybe you wondered who baked those three huge cakes and the 15 smaller ones which Marines cut with :captured" Japanese sabres.
  Or, if you eat at any of the Marine mess-halls in Tientsin, perhaps you're wondering where all the nice fresh white bread comes from, who bakes it, and how it's done.
  Well, that's the miracle we're talking about.
  On October 4 - two days before the Marines accepted the surrender of Japanese forces in Tientsin - Marine Warrant Officer Hobert F. Garrison of Charlottesville, Virginia, arrived with the Seventh Service Regiment. It was his assignment to take over a local Japanese candy factory on E-Wo Road, and convert it into a bakery large enough to supply 20,000 Marines with fresh bread every day.
  All Warrant Officer Garrison had to work with were eleven field ovens, a ten-day supply of flour, yeast, sugar, salt and fats - plus 88 pairs of capable hands.
  How they did it is a story in itself, but nine days later 4,000 two-pound loaves of hot bread - the first batch - came out of the ovens, and next morning every Marine in the Third Amphibious Corps, the First Marine Division and the Seventh Service Regiment in the Tientsin area had fresh bread for chow.
  Within ten days, however, the supply of baking supplies - flour, mostly - ran out. So Warrant Officer Garrison and his "Number One Man," Master Technical Sergeant Lewis R. Caputo of San Jose, Calif., "liberated" a stock of flour from the Japanese.
  This flour, incidentally, was taken by the Japanese from the Australian warehouse here in 1940-41, and chances are that the flour originally came from the United States. So, for a short time Marines here ate "liberated" bread and didn't know the difference.
  Today, the Seventh Service Regiment bakery turns out 8,000 pounds of bread a day. That day begins at 2:30 a.m. and ends at 5 p.m.

‘Our Daily Bread’ Chief Cook Samuel R. Have of the 6th Bakery Platoon, 7th Service Regiment, turning out a few of the thousands of loaves baked daily.
- an average of from 16 to 18 hours a day. Altogether, there are 88 expert bakers, pastry chefs and cooks working around the clock to keep the bakery in operation.
  The Marines Corps birthday cakes, some weighing as much as 125 pounds each, were decorated by Chief Cook Peter R. Kerbel of St. Louis, Mo., who is now attached to the Third 'Phib Corps, but who used to be a pastry man at a large hotel in his home town; and Assistant Cook Albert Wolan of Newark, N.J., of the First Marine Division. Working together, it took Kerhel, Wolan and their buddies three days to bake and decorate the cakes - but it only took the Marines less than ten minutes to eat them.
  Every Marine in Tientsin would have hot bread a few minutes after it came from the ovens, but the doctors say 24-hour-old bread is lighter, easier digested. Anyhow for a bakery using only field equipment, the Seventh Service bakery has accomplished a near miracle.     - By Sgt. Wm. Martin Camp.

Chinese Typewriter -
It’s Not As Complicated As It Looks

  by Sgt. John O. Davies, Jr.

  For mechanical abracadabra, the Chinese typewriter strikes a fanciful keynote among Oriental business machines.
  Operating the dah tze gee - the Chinese word for it - is almost like driving a jeep. Except, of course, it doesn't go anywhere. Alongside it the abacus, which natives use to add, subtract, divide, etc., seems a mere child's toy, a square of playpen beads.
  A typical Oriental-style typewriter is used by an insurance company here in Taku road. It weighs 50 pounds. A complexity of rollers, discs, type trays, handles and springs sit on a metal frame measuring almost two feet by two.
  Floating shift! The dah tze gee appears to have several of same.

‘Dah tze gee’ Marine Sergeant Laurence St. Martin of Milwaukee, Wisc., chief clerk in the Adjutant's Section, Third Amphibious Corps, headquarters, watches Miss Ching Yung Lu operate a dah tze gee, or Chinese typewriter, at the China Equitable Insurance Company office. - Photo By Corp. Elbert A. Frost
Pull a handle and the tray of type moves sideways. Press a button and the tray floats back and forth. The only accessories a dah tze gee lacks are four wheels and a gas tank.
  The tray holds 2,450 characters. The characters are imprinted on inch-high lead bars. Yank a lever downward and a hook grabs a type piece. Push the lever up and the type is inked and smashed against the sheet of paper, which is wound tightly around the roller and held fast by a couple of corset stays. When the lever apparatus flops back, with a terrific clatter, the type drops right back where it came from.
  Three "keys" turn the roller around and sideways, space the words and permit either vertical or horizontal typing.
  The dish of characters is incomprehensible to the foreigner. But not to the Chinese. Each dish is divided into departments, with such headings as "people," "water," "wood." Under "people," for instance, will be the character for "countryman." The "water" department will give you "sea," "river," "lake." The "wood" department will provide "trees," "lumber." All in all, there are about 100 such departments.
  Chinese consider the dah tze gee rather simple to operate. They learn to type, expertly, in one week. And as for speed, a capable operator can knock out 25 words a minute.
  He just throws the dah tze gee into high gear, releases the brake, pulls out the choke, steps on the clutch - and out of the clatter comes typewritten Chinese. Just like driving a jeep.
  Well, almost, anyway.

MAJOR GENERAL KELLER E. ROCKEY, USMC, Commanding General; LIEUTENANT COLONEL J. H. McMILLAN, USMCR, Special Services Officer; 2ND LIEUTENANT R. D. LYONS, USMCR, Officer-in-Charge; Sgt. WILLIAM MARTIN CAMP, Editorial Advisor; Corp. VICTOR I. BUMAGIN, Managing editor. STAFF: Corp. William J. Mangum, Sports; Pvt. Jack Sloan, Corp. Edward Daily, Corp. William F. Hart, Circulation Advisor. CONTRIBUTORS: S/Sgt. Norris Anderson, Sgt. Roland G. James, S/Sgt. Wayne F. Young, Sgt. John O. Davies, Jr., Corp. Arthur Sarett, Corp. Fred Travis.

NOVEMBER 24, 1945

Original issue of THE NORTH CHINA MARINE shared by Jeff Titchenal

Copyright © 2017 Carl Warren Weidenburner